Journal of Clinical Research and Medical Reports

Current Issues.

Volume 1  Issue 1
   Research Article         Month : 10 (2018)

Luteolin: target validation in Babesia bovis by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and in vivo inhibition of Babesia microti

  Mahmoud Rezk AbouLaila

Luteolin, a naturally occurring plant flavonoid, has antioxidant, anti-amoebic, antitrypanosomal, and antimalarial activities. In this study, the inhibitory effects of luteolin were microscopically evaluated against three Babesia species and Theileria equi in vitro and against B. microti in mice. Reverse-transcription PCR was used to evaluate the effect of luteolin on transcription of DNA gyrase subunits A and B genes. Luteolin significantly inhibited the growth from an initial parasitemia of 1 % for Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Babesia caballi, and Theileria equi with IC50 values of 81, 79, 90, and 99 nM, respectively. Parasite regrowth was inhibited at 100 μM in the subsequent viability test. Luteolin treatment of B.bovis cultures inhibited the transcription of the DNA gyrase subunit B gene. Luteolin at a dosage of 5 mg/kg resulted in a 77.5 % inhibition of Babesia microti growth in BALB/c mice. Luteolin might be used for drug therapy in babesiosis
   Review Article         Month : 10 (2018)

HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis: Efficacy and Safety of Approved Therapeutic Regimens and Promising Drugs

  Ricardo Ney Cobucci

Background: Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has emerged as a strategy for the prevention of HIV infection by antiretroviral drug use in seronegative individuals with continuous exposure to the virus. PrEP was approved in 2012 in the United States of America, by combining tenofovir disoproxil fumarate with emtricitabine (TDF/FTC). PrEP is based on TDF 300mg/FTC 200mg daily oral use, proposed to prevent infection in HIV-seronegative individuals with high risk of acquiring HIV. Methods: A review was performed of major clinical trials and observational studies evaluating the efficacy of this approved treatment and others underway that propose new treatments and different routes of administration with the aim of improving the effectiveness of prophylaxis. In addition, protocols approved in some countries and those that are still under evaluation to be applied are presented. Results and Conclusion: PrEP with TDF/FTC is effective and safe. However, the efficacy of other regimens is still being evaluated in clinical trials, preventing its recommendation