Open Access Journal of Orthopedics

Current Issues.

Volume 1  Issue 1
   Proceeding         Month : 10 (2018)

The ‘Golden Ratio’, Fibonacci and the Human Hand: Is there a Relationship?

  Louisa Banks

Fibonacci described amathematical sequence starting0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5&8…where each sub sequentialnumber is the sum of the two preceding numbers. The Golden Ratio (Phi, Φ=1.618) is the ratio of two consecutive numbers in the sequence. Here we investigate whether there is a relationship between these mathematical sequences or ratios and functional or actual lengths of the phalanges. Two hundred radiographs of the hand were reviewed by three independent reviewers and the actualand functional phalangeal lengths were measured.Both the functional and actual lengths of the phalanges of the little finger followed Fibonacci’s sequence. The index, middle and ring fingersfollowed a mathematical sequence related to the Fibonacci’s sequence. We were not able to demonstrate any direct relationship between phalangeal length and the golden ration (Φ). The sum of lengths of the distal and middle phalanx equals the length of the proximal phalanx with accuracy. This is potentially useful in many surgical situations (Congenital deformities, polytrauma to the hands, arthroplasty).
   Mini Review         Month : 10 (2018)

Labral (Pathologic) Similarities for the Human Shoulder and Hip Joint

  Thomas Berendes

Large differences exist between two- and four-legged locomotion, major morphological changes occurred in the human musculoskeletal system to facilitate its new purpose. The shoulder (glenohumeral) joints’ primary purpose shifted from stability to increase mobility. Contradictory, the hip (acetabulofemoral) joints’ primary purpose shifted from mobility to increase stability. However, stability and mobility are opposing functions and an optimal new equilibrium needed to be generated by means of morphological changes. These morphological changes had a noticeable effect on the shoulder and hip joints. The shoulder and hip joints are the largest balland socket joint in the human body and etiologically they possess, next to distinct differences, also many similarities. Both joints are assisted through static and dynamic stabilizers. The static stabilizers include the bony anatomy, the labrum, the joint capsule and the ligaments. The dynamic stabilizers are the surrounding muscles. Together the static and dynamic stabilizers form a perfect morphological compromise between mobility and stability. However, this perfect compromise differs for the shoulder and hip as their specific demands differ.